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Testing Times

Posted by admin on 7th April and posted in Strengths

Testing Times

Aruna Sankaranarayanan

First published in THE HINDU, Education Plus, 31 Mar 14

 

Most of us associate the word ‘testing’ with examinations that are imposed on us by schools and colleges.  We believe that they are a rite of passage that we need to undergo in order to satisfy graduation requirements of educational institutions.  Further, tests are also paired with marks and ranks, as a gauge of our performance relative to others.  But testing need not necessarily be limited to externally mandated requirements or competitive purposes.  In fact, self-testing, wherein we test our own abilities or knowledge, can be a very powerful tool for learning that promotes understanding at a deeper and more sophisticated level.

 

In fact, creating a test itself can enhance your grasp of a particular subject.  As a student, you typically prepare yourself to answer questions, but very often posing questions can aid comprehension as you might see connections you didn’t notice before or come up with fresh insights or inferences.  Further, generating a variety of types of questions in varying formats can help you see the material from new angles.  Thus, your questions may require direct, inferential, analytical and open-ended responses.  By framing exercises involving short-answers, extended essays, multiple-choice options, match the following or fill-in-the-blank activities, you will find that you can penetrate a text at multiple levels.

 

After creating your ‘test,’ you may want to take a break before you actually take it.  If time permits, you can do the test under exam like conditions where you seclude and time yourself.  But if you are pressed for time, you must at least try to answer the questions orally.  When in doubt, refer to the text.  If you still cannot answer a question, then you should probably consult your peers or professors.

 

Of course, it might be worthwhile to challenge yourself with one or two questions that you cannot answer readily.  Even if you are not able to answer the questions, the very act of asking it will probably change the way you view the concept you are studying.  Some questions may even pique your curiosity to seek further.  In addition to asking your teachers for advice, you may be motivated to read beyond the confines of your text.

 

Further, psychologists have documented an intriguing phenomenon called the “testing effect.”  Professors Henry Roediger and Jeffrey Karpicke have found that the act of testing improves subjects’ delayed recall of material.  Interestingly, testing was found to be superior at aiding students’ long-term retention compared to simply restudying content.  In a paper published in Psychological Science, Roediger and Karpicke write, “Testing is a powerful

means of improving learning, not just assessing it.”  In another study, published in Science, Jeffrey Karpicke and Janell Blunt found that students who took a test were better at long-term recall than a group that engaged in concept mapping.  Thus, once you have mastered a few chapters, it might be more prudent to test yourself instead of merely restudying the material.  For reasons that are not entirely clear to psychologists, the act of retrieving information helps it stick better in your memory.

 

After you take your test, you will also have a better grip on how effectively you have studied.  Were you able to answer most questions smoothly?  If you were stymied by most of them, then you need to review the lesson again or probably even alter the way you study.  Perhaps, you read the lesson in a very cursory fashion without processing the content at a deeper level.  Or were you daydreaming of your upcoming graduation party instead of focusing on alkanes, alkenes and alkynes?

 

Self-testing can be an effective gauge of your study habits and can sharpen your metacognitive awareness which is a personal reflection of how your inner faculties operate.  You will realize whether you have been an attentive reader or if your mind has been drifting during some sections.  You may find that it is not enough for you to revise the content a couple of times; memorizing dates in History may take longer and require more effort on your part.  As you begin to fathom under what conditions you learn and remember best, and what you need to do in order to understand a concept deeply, you will be able to optimize your study habits.

 

While testing can be a solitary activity, you may also find it useful to exchange test questions with your peers.  In fact, a whole class of test-makers will be a formidable challenge for any professor to beat.  When you have forty minds devising tricky or complex questions, you are bound to have a valuable question bank at your disposal.

 

Students sometimes attempt question papers from previous years when studying.  While old question papers can definitely be used to test yourself, don’t deny yourself the opportunity of being a test-creator.  Finally, you must remember that the goal of education is not to crack tests but to learn and extend yourself.

(The author is Director, PRAYATNA. Email: arunasankara@gmail.com)

 

 

Diverse in Diverse Ways

Posted by admin on 26th February and posted in Book Club

Diverse in Diverse ways

By Bhavna.R

Chester’s Way explored friendship from a different perspective.  The story about the mice Chester, Wilson and Lily looked at how friendships are formed between extremely different personalities.  “Diverse in Diverse ways” was the theme of the day.  Chester’s Way teaches us that being different is good.  Diversity provides the opportunity to learn new things and develop new perspectives.  The message that kids took away from this book club was exactly that.

The events of the book club were designed to make the children understand that it was important having friends different from you.  The teachers at PRAYATNA highlighted some of the activities that we did with our friends i.e. playing, sharing food, chatting, sharing secrets etc.  In a show-and-tell activity, children showed the audience a picture of their friend and spoke about him or her.  The book reading of the fun and light hearted story Chester’s Way kept the kids engaged.  The quiz following the story highlighted the theme of the day and the children were enthusiastic with their answers.

Kids were asked to pair up and discuss three things that were similar and dissimilar with their partners.  In pairs, they spoke about what they had discovered about each other.  From favourite colours to favourite sport, children discovered some surprising similarities with their partners.  The concept of homogeneity and heterogeneity was discussed through a collage highlighting differences in individuals.  People differ from one another in terms of languages spoken, appearance, religion, likes and interest etc.  This diversity was examined through an interactive session.  Children were enthusiastic and the younger kids actively participated as well.  They shared information about their friends who were dissimilar to them.

Take home gifts of paper plate photo frames with the words “Like but not alike” were given hoping to remind them how special and unique each of them were.

(Bhavna R. is a Special Educator at PRAYATNA.)

Chennai Parent Forum-2014

Posted by admin on 19th February and posted in Strengths

Chennai Parent Forum – 2014

Unlike the preceding years, this year’s Parent Forum turned the spotlight on parents rather than children.  The topic was Parental Priorities, where parents, for a change, put themselves first.  Parents were given a handout and asked to rate themselves on their level of satisfaction with life.  This was followed by four role-plays enacted by the staff, depicting conflicts occurring in most households between spouses, parent and child, parent and grandparent and parent and teacher.  Most parents could identify with more than one scenario.

 

Parents were given a Stress Test, where they had to introspect and identify the kinds of stresses they underwent in various domains that included children, spouse, domestic duties, extended family, work and health.  They also had to rate the stress level in each domain.  The importance of establishing the primary source of stress was highlighted, as the first step towards alleviating stress in their lives.  These varied from one parent to the other, as they voiced their concerns.  Stress spills over from one to other areas.  It is essential for the mental well-being of every parent to become self-aware of the dynamics of the family.  An escalation of stress levels can affect relationships within a family.  Hence it is important to address these and bring them down.  Talking to a counselor also helps in more severe cases.

 

For every parent, particularly mothers, taking care of oneself is of prime importance.  Only then can they take on the various stresses in their lives.  Eating healthy, exercising, going for regular checkups and setting aside some quiet time for themselves are some of the measures that can be taken for ensuring physical well-being.  Blaming oneself for difficulties one’s children manifest is not an ideal solution for tackling their problems.  It helps to locate and reach out to support groups where one gets to interact with other parents facing similar difficulties.  Engaging in a ‘flow’ activity is another way of de-stressing.  This is an activity in which a person is totally immersed, oblivious to everything else, and when they are most happy.  Parents recounted activities like reading, doing voluntary work or working with children as their ‘flow’ activity.

 

As the next activity, parents were asked to list five things they were thankful for.  To quote Martin Seligman, “The reason gratitude works to increase life satisfaction is that it amplifies good memories about the past: their intensity, their frequency, and the tag lines the memories have.”  Among the gathering of parents, many mothers expressed gratitude to their husbands for giving them full freedom to make decisions regarding their children.  Some were thankful for their children, who made their lives so much more meaningful, despite the problems they had.  A few were thankful for good health and comfortable lives, as compared with the have-nots.  Parents were also grateful for support from the extended family.  One parent made the very discerning statement that, “Being thankful gives a sense of order.”  It is an important requisite in today’s hectic scenario.

 

‘The Magic of 15 minutes’ was the next area of discussion.  Parents were asked about activities their children enjoyed doing with them.  An interesting list was put forth, that included story telling, shopping, playing games, cooking, making shopping lists, painting and conducting science experiments.  This theory is part of the program developed by Russell Barkley to curb defiance in children.  All it asks is for parents to spend fifteen minutes with the child doing what he enjoys, without being critical or judgmental.  It is a good time for bonding with the child and has proved to be very effective in bringing down stress levels in parent and child.  This is to be performed separately by both parents.

 

The forum concluded with Ross Greene’s Collaborative Problem Solving theory for resolving conflicts within the family, in order to create a more harmonious home.  It requires three simple steps.  The first step is to empathize with the child or adult’s perspective, at a time when both are in a relatively calm state of mind.  The next step is to state the problem as objectively as possible.  Lastly, invite the other person to brainstorm and offer solutions for the problem at hand.  It is a time-tested remedy for problem solving and has been found to be fairly effective.

 

Parents took home the message about the importance of taking stock of the stresses in their lives and reducing them to the extent possible.  They realized how essential it was to maintain their own physical and emotional well being.  The forum gave most parents an opportunity to discover the many things they were grateful for and count their blessings.  They welcomed the ideas for improving relationships with their children and resolving conflicts within the family.  Overall, it was a fruitful experience.

 

(Gita Nambiar is a Special Educator at PRAYATNA.)

Beware!

Posted by admin on 12th February and posted in Book Club

Beware!

Prerona Mukherji

We revisited popular Indian folklore with Akbar and Birbal in the previous month’s book club at PRAYATNA, Chennai.  The story was about a washerman who was conned by a potter and how Birbal’s brilliant mastermind helped the washerman outsmart the potter.

 

Children entered the centre cheerfully dressed as either Akbar or Birbal , recreating the Mughal era.  The board was filled with pictures which depicted the various ways by which people get cheated to bring about awareness in children.  They were eager to know how the pictures were connected to the theme of the book club.

 

The book club commenced with a mime by teachers of ‘Little Red Riding Hood’ which immediately sparked a discussion on ‘conning’, where the little girl faced the consequences after being deceived by the wolf.

 

This was followed by a narrative of an ordinary woman who is cheated time and again in day-to-day transactions.  This in turn reinforced the idea of being cautious and careful of one’s surroundings and dealings with people.  We then spoke about different instances of everyday forms of cheating that we encounter in India—from diluting milk to tampering with autorickshaw metres to using counterfeit notes.

 

We then provided an historical background of Akbar and Birbal.  This was followed by an engaging quiz.  Children were divided into two teams- Akbar and Birbal.  The children displayed a lot of enthusiasm during this activity by trying to outperform the other team.

 

The highlight of the book club was a play the children enacted based on the book.  It was refreshing to watch the kids perform so beautifully, dressed in their Mughal attire.

 

In the last activity, we enlightened kids with a talk on how to prevent ourselves from being deceived by being alert and aware of the happenings in our environment and the people around us.  Each of them was given a counterfeit note with the word ‘Beware’ written on it to take home, to remind them of how they can be deceived and how they can outwit the conmen by being vigilant at all times.

 

(Prerona Mukherji is a Special Educator at PRAYATNA.)

Reading Redefined

Posted by admin on 4th February and posted in Strengths

Reading Redefined

Aruna Sankaranarayanan

First published in Education Plus, THE HINDU, 3 Feb 14

The countdown to your exams has begun. Three weeks to go but every time you glance at the textbooks on your desk, you feel a knot in your stomach. How are you going to plod through the pile of pages? The task seems so daunting that you procrastinate by cleaning your room, returning long-lost phone calls, checking your email or updating your status on Facebook.

Possibly, a reason you find studying so challenging is that you dislike reading. In the primary classes, you were taught how to read by “sounding out” words or recognising them by sight. Formal reading instruction in most schools typically tapers off when students start reading aloud accurately. Even though ‘reading’ per se in not taught in higher classes, older students can benefit from knowing how to wade through diverse, dense and demanding texts. Finally, skilled readers have to learn how to evaluate texts and make discerning choices.

In an increasingly digital and interconnected world, the ability to read and glean meaning is increasingly becoming an essential skill. But many students do not become proficient readers as they have a skewed understanding of what it entails. Right from school, reading is equated with regurgitating information from the text. You view your mind as a passive receptacle that has to be filled with facts and factoids from a dull and dreary text. Students tend to perceive reading as a relatively passive act compared to speaking or writing. Typically, listening and reading are construed as receptive forms of communication where you receive what is either told or printed. However, in a classic book on reading, educators Mortimer Adler and Charles Van Doren argue that for you to gain maximally from reading, you have to change your perception of it. Reading is an active and engaging act provided you do it the right way.

Learn to comprehend

Even though you do ‘receive’ information while reading, you should not be a mindless recipient. Instead, Adler and Van Doren compare a reader to a “catcher in a game of baseball.” Whether or not you get the message of a book depends not only on the author, but also on how you activate and use your mental toolkit. Reading experts Stephanie Harvey and Anne Goudvis provide suggestions on how to enhance your comprehension.

First and foremost, word calling is not reading. Merely decoding print does not constitute reading. Unless you read to understand, your reading will remain shallow and superficial. But what do you do when you are confronted with a difficult chapter in your Chemistry textbook that you don’t quite understand? Adler and Van Doren advocate that you simply continue reading and complete the chapter even if you do not grasp the meaning of every word. On your second reading, you will find that your comprehension increases.

After getting the gist of a chapter or book, you have to turn on all your mental faculties. Active reading involves effort — don’t expect to breeze through texts. One of the key roles of a reader is to ask questions. You may mistakenly believe that as a student it is more important to answer questions, but learning actually involves more asking. As you read, ask yourself and the text questions, some of which may be answered as you read along. Harvey and Goudvis believe that “Questioning is the strategy that propels readers forward.” Some questions may be directly answered in the text while others may have to be inferred. Further, if you ask questions that are not addressed in the chapter, do not despair. You have only tweaked your own curiosity to seek further. Finally, you may even question the veracity of what you are reading. Just because something is printed, it need not necessarily be accurate or true. This is especially pertinent as the Internet is a vast repository of information; however, not all sites post valid or accurate material. Thus, you have to ask whether the author provides evidence to support his position. Does she masquerade opinions as facts? At the college level, you may discern that the author presents only a point of view; you as a reader are entitled to critique it.

See the connection

In addition to questioning, Harvey and Goudvis encourage readers to make connections, wherever possible between the text and themselves, other texts or the world. For texts that lend themselves to visualisation, try and picture what you read as vividly as possible. For descriptive material, you may even draw what you read.

Often, writers leave it to the reader to infer a message or theme. As you read, you have to sift through information to determine what the main concept is and distinguish supporting details from broader ideas. After you read a section, you may pause to summarise what you have read. Stating the content of a section or chapter in your own words is an excellent way to test whether you have understood it. If you can integrate what you have read with something you have learnt earlier or you are able to synthesise information from multiple texts, you are reading analytically and deeply.

Taking notes while reading can also enhance your involvement. While it may be time-consuming to jot down points on a separate piece of paper, you may circle key words, put an asterisk near important sections, number a sequence of points and make short notes in the margins. But be wary of highlighting sections mindlessly. You should also vary your reading speed for different portions of the text. Read denser sections more slowly to digest the content.

Mature readers make informed decisions on what to read. It is probably not worth your while to spend time over a low quality book or websites that lack credibility. You as the reader have to choose material that extends your understanding. Adler and Van Doren write that reading is a “kind of conversation” that you have with the author, but most importantly, “the reader is the one who has the last word.”

The author is director, Prayatna.

Parental Priorities

Posted by admin on 21st January and posted in Strengths

Parental Priorities—Putting Parents First

Kushal Talgeri

 

This year, the annual parent forum at our Bangalore centre, was designed with a twist.  While our previous forums focused on various difficulties children face and equipping parents with handling those, this one, emphasized the importance of parents taking care of their personal needs.  To be better able to handle the various pressures that the parent-child relationship is subjected to, it is essential that parents first handle the stresses and strains in their own life while retaining a positive outlook.

 

The session was interesting with an encouraging participation from the parents.  They were quite forthcoming about the stresses they faced, ranging from doing domestic chores to dealing with children with difficulties.  One parent mentioned that since her child has a difficulty, she spends most of her evening doing academic work with her and hence, cannot help her mother in the kitchen.  A teenager’s parent was stressed because her child is having difficulty accepting her learning difficulty.  After parents shared the stressors in their lives, we discussed strategies to deal with stress.  Most parents were keen on being part of a support group.  A discussion on how engaging in a “flow” activity can enhance well-being revealed that parents seemed to enjoy just being with their children, listening to them talk.  Others mentioned their job, reading and listening to music.  On a lighter note, couple of parents said even teaching their child a particular subject like math and science engaged them in “flow”, though it may not necessarily be a flow activity for the child.

 

Parents were then asked to express what they were grateful for.  Perhaps for the first time, many husbands expressed their gratitude towards their wives who take care of their homes, to which their wives responded with beaming smiles.  Parents were also thankful for a supportive family, sensitive teachers at school, lovely kids and sympathetic employers.  One mother was grateful for herself and the strength with which she has been able to handle various problems in her life.  It was a very touching moment for the PRAYATNA team, when many parents expressed they were thankful for PRAYATNA’s services in helping their children enhance their academic skills.

 

To empower parents in developing smoother relationships with their children, we encouraged them to spend 15 minutes a day with them doing what they want to, without being subjected to any instructions or criticism.  Some parents mentioned that they have been doing this for a while and that they really enjoy this time.  To help parents resolve conflicts at home and outside, we shared with them the Collaborative Problem Solving process which involves empathizing with the other person’s perspective, stating the problem as objectively as possible and inviting the other person to brainstorm for solutions.  Parents felt this was a useful tool that could help them to deal with various problems at home like getting ready for school on time, time spent on watching television, etc.

 

To conclude, parenting can be wonderful yet frustrating.  It is important that parents don’t get overwhelmed by the pressures of parenting and stop caring about themselves.  What is required, according to Hal Runkel, a family therapist in the United States, is for parents to be “calm and connected” to their children.  He reminds us that “parenting is not about children, it’s about parents.”

 

(The author is a special educator at PRAYATNA.)

Home is Where I Belong

Posted by admin on 3rd January and posted in Book Club

Home is Where I Belong

By Bhavna R.

The last book club for the year ended on a serious note.  It set a tone for the holiday season- the season of giving.  Importance of having a home was highlighted through various activities.  The story of The Little Match Girl on New Year’s Eve struck a chord with everyone present.

The first activity for the day was “show and tell”.  Kids had to show a picture of a favourite part of their home and talk about what they did there and what they liked about it.  It was a delight to hear the kids speak about their favourite ‘dens’.  One boy mentioned how he loved the green cover he could see from his balcony making that his favourite part of the house.

All kids participated and contributed to the discussion regarding the various things one does and the needs that are satisfied by a home.  On the board was a collage of pictures showing different things that one did at home and this aided the discussion.  This was followed by a game where the kids had to match the different kinds of houses on the board with their corresponding names like a houseboat, igloo, motor home etc.

The popular tale of The Little Match Girl was read out.  The heartwarming story of the match girl on New Year’s Eve added to the solemn tone of the book club.  The plight of homeless kids was depicted through several mimes by the teachers at PRAYATNA.  Problems encountered by street children that were shown to the kids included poverty, hunger, violence, child labour and lack of shelter.  The importance of giving was highlighted to the children.

Book club members at PRAYATNA brought gifts for kids and the collection was donated to a charity in the spirit of Christmas.  This book club the children took back with them the joy of giving and warmth in their hearts.

(Bhavna R is a Special Educator at PRAYATNA.)

Don’t Erupt

Posted by admin on 3rd December and posted in Book Club

“Don’t Erupt!”

By Prerona Mukherji

Last month’s book club at PRAYATNA, Chennai, revolved around an extremely pertinent topic that is experienced in almost every household—anger.  The book club discussed ‘anger management’, focusing on the various ways by which we can control our temper.  The book read out to was When Sophie Gets Angry- Really, Really Angry by Molly Bang.  It was about a little girl who got furious with her family as things did not work out according to her wish and as a result she tore her small world into pieces.  She ran out of her house, cried and only when she felt a sense of comfort from Mother Nature, she came back home.  She was happy to find everyone relieved to have her back to where she belonged.

The kids at PRAYATNA walked into the centre and saw a picture of a volcano on the board. They were curious to know how the story was linked to the picture.

The book club started with two questions put forth to children: what made them angry and how they behaved when they were angry.  The children recounted their reactions to their perceived slights of being teased and taken for granted.  A teacher explained the physiological effects on the human body when anger struck — the unconscious tensing of muscles, teeth grinding, veins becoming more visible, increase of heart rate and adrenaline surge and uneasiness in the stomach.  This in turn led to detrimental effects on human health conditions.  In the next activity, synonyms for the word ‘angry’ were shared with children. To ensure that the children understood the meaning, we read a sentence with each word and asked them to make one on their own.

The next activity was the book reading followed by five role plays brilliantly performed by the staff members.  The role plays showed children indulging in aggressive behaviour when frustrated and disappointed under various circumstances.  We then had a detailed discussion on how to deal with anger.  An alternative positive approach to anger like engaging in visualization, labeling the emotion, to stop-think- act, walking away and talking later, counting backwards from ten to one and breathing slowly were introduced to children.  Various anger-provoking scenarios that could happen in school, home and playground were given to children.  They enacted effective ways of dealing with their anger.  It was clear that the children understood the concept as they excelled in the activity.

In the last activity, the staff demonstrated  progressive muscle relaxation technique.  This happened to be the highlight of the book club. Children enjoyed learning the process of tensing and relaxing their muscles and displayed a lot of enthusiasm while performing the activity.  Children were given a ‘Stop, Think, Act’ signal to take home at the end of all the activities.

It is often seen when we are angry we lose control of ourselves and hence tend to hurt others and inflict pain on ourselves.  We do not realize and end up screaming, bad mouthing and hurting people which might have an adverse effect on our near and dear ones.  The theme of the book club brought forward the message that we need to realize that having a control on ourselves can solve many problems, smoothen relationships and make the world a happier place to live in.  Children became more aware of their reactions which can lead to many unnecessary conflict.  They also realized they need to make that extra conscious effort in calming themselves down at the face of anger.

(Prerona Mukherji is a Special Educator at PRAYATNA.)

Beauty in Simplicity

Posted by admin on 26th November and posted in Book Club

Beauty in Simplicity

Rachita Deepak

Wabi Sabi is the Japanese translation for “Beauty in Simplicity”. This was the book and theme chosen for the book club in Bangalore this month. The room was decorated aesthetically with Japanese depictions of simple but beautiful things used in everyday life. The day was started off with a show-and-tell by the teachers, who brought little things that were meaningful to them, but then again simple and beautiful like, key chains, hand painted cards etc. Before we began reading the book, all the children were asked if they knew the meaning of their names for which we got very interesting answers.

Wabi Sabi is a book written by Mark Reibstein and creative art by Ed Young. This book is about a cat named Wabi Sabi who did not know what her name meant. Everyone she asked found it “hard to explain”, except for a wise monkey, Kosho, in between who illustrated the meaning beautifully. The story included a number of Haikus with bewitching 3-D like pictures that had the children gripped.

To keep the children completely engaged in the activities, a show-and-tell was organised for them as well. They were asked to bring something simple, but precious and meaningful. And for the ones who forgot, there were a number of items ranging from shells barks, flowers, leaves, to pieces of cloth, tastefully arranged; children could choose an object from this array and explain why it was simple and yet so beautiful. The day ended with the kids pressing painted leaves on neatly cut out pieces of newspaper, sticking to the theme of the book- “Beauty in Simplicity”.

(Rachita Deepak is a Special Educator at PRAYATNA.)

Reduce, Reuse and Recycle

Posted by admin on 13th November and posted in Book Club

Reduce, Reuse and Recycle

By Bhavna R.

This month’s book club at Chennai conveyed a strong message about saving our planet.  Kids were bewildered to see PRAYATNA littered.  Even the board depicted planet earth surrounded by trash.  Few kids even picked up the litter and put them in bins.  Little did they know it was all a part of the book club activities.

 

The children were asked if they knew what happened to the waste that they generate at home everyday and were briefed about the waste disposal system in their city through a flow chart.  To our delight, the children at PRAYATNA were environmentally-conscious and actively participated in the discussions.  The kids were appalled by effects of excess waste generation.

 

The story about the search for a discarded Teddy Bear in Teddy Bear Tears from a children’s anthology sent across a pivotal message that one must be careful about what he throws away.  Children were informed about the three ‘R’s of conservation,’ i.e. Reduce, Reuse and Recycle.  An interactive session regarding the various steps that we could take to reduce, reuse and recycle waste was conducted.

 

Several wonderful ideas were generated by the young minds about how we could reduce our trash output.  In groups of five, children were given items usually discarded, like an empty oil packet.  They were then asked to brainstorm the various ways these objects could be reused.  The children thoroughly enjoyed the activity and came up with many innovative ideas.

 

The teachers at PRAYATNA displayed wonderful products that were made from reused objects.  Kids were asked to be inventive about what they could do with objects that usually ended up in dustbins.  A parting gift of five ice cream sticks was given to the kids and they were asked to put their creativity to use.

 

(Bhavna is a Special Educator at PRAYATNA.)

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